SARS-Cov-2 Pandemic Mostly, But Not Completely Over
Pandemic After-Effects, Lessons Learned
Vaccine Industry Updates
Next Update - End of Q4
SARS-CoV-2: Tougher Variants, New Vaccines, Extended Coverage, Slower Vaccine Rates
Vaccine Industry Updates
Next Update - End of Q3
SARS-CoV-2: From Vaccine Scarcity to Vaccine Demand Destruction and Vaccine Glut
However, the Quest for Next Generation Vaccines Continues
And WIV-based Vaccines Continue to Make Progress
Refana Update - Further Vaccine Developments
Refana Update - Other Developments
Refana Communication - Investor Update
Covid 19 - Down, But Not Out
Despite the decision of many countries over the last two months to ease or eliminate COVID restrictions, it is clear that COVID is not over. There are a number of distinct themes:
Refana Update - Proof of Concept on WIV Vaccine Yields Positive Results
IITRI Paper - American Society of Virology (ASV) Conference - Wisconsin
Refana is now working with a number of parties on a funding proposal to NIAID, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for next stages of funding, which would take this project, potentially, to full trials and if successful, ultimate approval
Development of a Small Scale Whole Inactivated Vaccine Against B.1.617.2 SARS-CoV-2 Delta
Andrew Eaton1, Landon Westfall1, Dianet Giraldo1, Brian Maccaba2, Phillip Schwartz3 and Robert Baker1*
1 Affiliation 1: Division of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), Chicago, IL 60616
2 Affiliation 2: Refana™, Middletown, DE 19709
3 Affiliation 3: EnteraBio, Jerusalem Israel 9112002
Vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2 variants in humans will be benefited from using multiple types of vaccine constructs. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are safe and have been used in the prevention of respiratory viruses such as influenza and polio as well as others, and have the added benefit of more stable storage. Here we have produced, inactivated, purified, and concentrated a Delta B.1.617.2 WIV and tested its efficacy using K18-hACE2 heterozygous mice. We compared varying growth conditions including serum-containing and serum-free medias. Total protein was quantified in both medias with values of 927 µg/mL and 2 µg/mL respectively. Following optimization of conditions, Vero E6 cells were grown in a Corning HyperFLASK® and infected with SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2). After harvest, virus was concentrated 500-fold using centrifugal filters and quality controlled at multiple steps using qPCR, Bradford, and SDS-PAGE. The original volume, prior to concentration, had a total SARS-CoV-2 genome content at 1.20E+11 copies. Following 100-fold concentration the total genomes copies was 3.78E+10 which correlates to a ~69% loss during processing. The final vaccine preparation was prepared with a squalene-in-water emulsion adjuvant and tested in K18-hACE2 mice along with shame-vaccinated controls. Mice were prime/boost vaccinated with a total of 0.2 µg and 1.9 µg S1 RBD, respectively. Although vaccinated mice showed only anti-Spike ELISA antibody titers, they showed substantial neutralizing and ELISA titers after boost against both the WA1/2020 and Delta variants (neutralizing titer of approximately 640 post-boost). Protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated with a live SARS-CoV-2 Delta challenge. These findings suggest that using a whole inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 should be further evaluated. A whole inactivated vaccine tend to be more temperature stable to reduce transport costs and associated issues to mitigate logistical challenges in delivering to other countries.
Delta B.1.617.2, Whole Inactivated Virus Vaccine, Neutralization titers
Omicron wanes, but leaves more death in its wake
Europe Re-Opens - The "All Clear"?
Israel as a Case Study - Vaccination No Longer Counts?
Vaccine Equity - Africa
Is Omicron the End of the Pandemic?
What are the Assumptions Underlying the Hope that Omicron is the End of the Pandemic?
Where are Vaccines Going Next?
28 Days Later: An Omicron ‘Remake’
COVID Continues to Kill - Death Rate in High Income Countries up 6x in 5 Months
Vaccines, Therapeutics and Vaccination in the West
Differential Death and Vaccination Rates
Three Key Questions
Outlook for 2002
Follow this link to see the graphs and insight in exhibits 1-5
COVID-19 death rates in the high income countries have increased 6x in 5 months
The current death rate in the advanced economies of 3 per million per day is now four times the average death rate in the rest of the world. Is this because of the reliance on mRNA vaccines?
Exhibit 1 - Death Rates Per Capita Across High to Low Income Economies
Exhibit 2 - New Covid Infections per Capita across High to Low Income Countries
Exhibit 3 - Excess Mortality Rates for Selected Countries
Exhibit 4 - Vaccine/Booster Doses - Selected Countries
Exhibit 5 - Vaccine/Booster Doses by High to Low Income Countries
Thanks to 'Our World In Data' for the fantastic graphs.
From the Known…
...to the Highly Unknown - Omicron Variant (Breaking News - Refana is Monitoring Carefully)
Increasing Infection, Decreasing Deaths?
Industry/Market Responses to Omicron
Living with the Endemic
What Does the Medicine Say?
Source: Our World in Data as at 23rd October 2021
The Business of Vaccines